The aim of this course is to give students knowledge and insight into extended assessment methods (EAM) that go beyond the classic research methods, such as traditional survey, observations and interviews. Students are introduced in different multi-method approaches starting from Raymond Cattell’s vision. Student will learn theoretical and empirical differences between nomothetic-ideographic theories and how they can be applied in longitudinal research designs, by using multiple data sources, such as surveys and physiological data. Psychological phenomena from different psychological domains (e.g., clinical and forensic psychology, human resource, organization psychology) are introduced and explained from a multi-assessment method (survey, experimental and real life). In addition, students are introduced to various advanced methodologies and tools, such as virtual reality, experience sampling method, single case research and network analysis. A multimethod and multivariate approach, rather than a univariate approach, offers more theoretical and empirical understanding of complex, interrelated behavioral mechanisms in human beings. Extended assessment methods assume that research on complex human behavior should use a broad range of factors. Human behavior and underlying mechanisms can only be understood when using different data sources and methods, which must also be complementary.
The EAM course relies on various courses in the research master. In EAM and because individual differences are central, the course ‘Theoretical Models of Individual Differences’ is important. In EAM, addressed by Cattell, biological and physiological markers are combined with, e.g., survey or observation data, whereby students can rely on the course ‘Biological and Physiological Correlates of Individual Differences course’. In EAM, also individual differences are analyzed and calculated which makes the courses, ‘Psychometrics: Measurement of Individual Differences’ and ‘Multivariate analysis’ very useful.
The course has the following objectives:
Knowledge transfer and comprehension
- Applying specific theoretical models (course ‘Theoretical Models of Individual Differences’) in relationship to specific empirical settings, such as clinical psychology and the context of occupational and organizational psychology.Be able to understand and practice (daily) life data, experimental data and questionnaire data in order to get insight in, and to build an integrative framework to understand individual differences.
- Be able to conduct data-sampling by measuring behavioral patterns using (digital) daily life data, experimental data and questionnaire data.
- Be able to develop a Single Case Research Design and be able to calculate individual outcomes by using NAP.
- Be able to understand the effects of distorted factors, such as time bias, observer bias. etc.
- Be able to critically consider the most optimal research design. Students must be able to compare and understand different research designs, to reflect critically on them and to make a final decision of what is the best design for answering research questions.
- Be able to practice communication skills by orally conveying scientific knowledge to peer students (powerpoint presentation) related to the content of the lecture. The student can also practice scientifically reflecting on presentations given by peer students.
- Be able to gain insight into how EAM can contribute to setting up an independent research design.
Application of knowledge and evaluation
- Learning to operationalize specific theoretical frameworks by using comprehensive sampling (e.g., triangulation) to generate explanations about characteristics behaviour patterns of individuals in real world.
- Learning to connect assessment methods to the broad field of psychology (clinical and organizational psychology). Students should be able to apply their acquired knowledge about different data sources, different measurement levels and different time intervals to the broad field of psychology (clinical, occupational and organization psychology).
- Learning to evaluate research designs based on understanding and reflection.
- Learn to evaluate whether advanced research methods (e.g., ESM, SCED) and research tools (e.g., virtual Reality and Neurofeedback) are suitable for answering research questions. Students are taught to critically evaluate whether, when, and how advanced assessment methods are desired.
- Learning to transfer scientific knowledge to peer students through a presentation, learning to reflect scientifically and critically on scientific research.
- Learning to independently set up a research design.
Evaluation of knowledge and synthesis
Understand and develop an innovative multivariate research design to assess individual differences in, e.g., clinical and forensic psychology and psychology of work and organization. For example, students develop an intervention aimed at organizational psychology, students develop a single case experimental research design aimed at, for example, decreasing burnout-related complaints. In addition, students learn to make a synthesis and learn to look at effectiveness and efficiency.
Learning activities and content|
The course starts with an update of important theories, such as Cattell’s data cube, Hofstees’ observer hypothesis and social perception effects. Students will be invited to discuss the added value of different data sources in order to reduce measurement errors and misinterpretations. Following this, different extended assessment methods will be studied and discussed in different professional domains.
This content matter is covered in 12 two-hour lectures and 2 practical four-hour sessions with possibility for individual consultations with the teachers.
- Course outline, practical issues and the explanation of extended assessment methods in different psychological fields. Defining the content of basic assessment methods.
- Individual performance assessment in organisational psychology.
- The assessment and analysis of individual mistakes and errors in organization psychology.
- Task analysis/Situational Judgement Testing and individual assessment.
- Social media and individual assessment.
- Diary and event-sampling methods in organization psychology.
- Working and practicing with extensive assessment: design a study using diary/event sampling methods: practical session and consulting
- The complex world of psychopathology, group difference vs. individual differences, social network and application in the clinical domain, nomothetic vs. ideographic approaches.
- Contemporary assessment (risk and psychopathology) in clinical forensic psychology: pitfalls, sample problems and measurement invariance?
- Implicit measures (heart rate and skin conductance), behaviorial observations and physiological assessment in clinical psychology: what can be observed in the head and body?
- Virtual reality in clinical (forensic) psychology: a realistic future?
- Visiting the virtual reality lab in a forensic institution: debate with patients and clinicians and introduction to virtual reality.
- Working and practicing with extensive assessment: heart rate, skin conductance and daily life data: practical session and consulting
- Remaining questions and topics for discussion
Assessment and Examination
The examination consists of two parts:
The course does not follow a textbook but uses each year new state of the art theoretical and empirical papers related to the course content. A week before each lecture, students receive two or three papers (or book chapters) from the teachers.
- Multiple choice test about extended assessment methods. The focus is on the learning outcomes previously described in this document. Knowledge, knowledge transfer, comprehension of knowledge, applying acquired knowledge, evaluating knowledge and synthesizing knowledge. These elements are measured during the exam (counts for 70%).
- Students are required to present a study at least twice (mandatory). Two or three papers per lecture are selected by the teachers in advance. Students present these papers (individually) paying attention to theoretical background, critical description of the research design, analytical approach, results and discussion. Students must also address limitations and strengths. Presentations end with two discussion points that are discussed in small groups and then plenary. Teachers stimulate students' critical thinking skills and challenge them scientifically to think out of the box (counts for 30%).
To pass this course, students must present at least twice during the course. Total grades must be in line with the examination regulations.
Students who have not passed and presented at least twice during the course, have the opportunity to take re-exams. Deviations are only possible after discussion with the teacher and/or AD.
Due to the small number of students in the IDA in the first years (<10), open-ended questions were chosen instead of MCs in consultation with the Academic Director.
In case the Covid measures still apply, the exam will take the following form: students will be given 3 assignments related to writing an essay (min 750 words and max 2000 words) on topics covered in the course. The questions of the three essays are passed on to the students in advance. The MC exam will then be canceled.
|Course available for exchange students||Required materials-Recommended materials-Tests|